Provide Feedback and Formative Assessment

Updated Resources_August 2016:

Books & Articles

  • Gikandi, J. W., Morrow, D., & Davis, N. E. (2011). Online formative assessment in higher education: A review of the literature. Computers & education, 57(4), 2333-2351.
    • Provides a systematic qualitative review of the literature on formative assessment in higher education in online environments.
  • Nicol, D. J., & Macfarlane-Dick, D. (2006). Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: A model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Studies in Higher Education, 31(2), 199-218. doi:10.1080/03075070600572090
    • Outlines principles for integrating formative assessment, providing effective feedback and helping students regulate and take control of their own learning.


Original Supporting Resources:

  • Bransford, J., Brown, A., & Cocking, R. (1999). How people learn: Brain, mind experience and school. Retrieved from the National Academy of Sciences web site: http://
  • Swan, K. (2005). A constructivist model for thinking about learning online. In J. Bourne & J. C. Moore (Eds), Elements of Quality Online Education: Engaging Communities. Needham, MA: Sloan-C.
  • Assessment Reform Group. (1999). Assessment for learning: Beyond the black box